04 january 2017, 02:10
The gun in the modern narrow sense of long-barreled firearms designed to hold and control when shooting with two hands, with emphasis butt in the shoulder with a smoothbore or a combination of smooth and rifled barrels firing a bullet or shot. Until relatively recently, the beginning of XX century the gun in the broadest sense meant any long-barreled hand-guns including rifles and automatic and in very early meaning of the word was in the Russian language practically synonymous with the word weapon.
The word gun is found in Russian written sources since the beginning of the XVII century, the value of the weapon at all from cold to artillery but mainly small hand guns. Etymological dictionary of the Russian language M. Fasmer determines the gun and the gun as a popular form of book words оружие1. In Moscow the diploma 1676 read the hammers or some other rifle in the Acts of the economy of boyar Morozova 1656 And they have a rifle musket and Berdyshev and Rohatyn and puffins and then used the gun imali all to himself. In the XVII century the word gun in a broad sense and weapons differed stylistically about the gun mentioned in the writ petitions correspondence in General, in low styles of writing and speaking about weapons in official documents and printed books. In the second half of the XVII century, the field of use of the word gun in literature expands. So in Chimes is on par found a gun and оружие2.
During Peter's military reforms many weapons of the XVII century are fading and the word gun with the beginning of the eighteenth century becomes more narrow sense close to the modern long-barreled handguns. Dictionaries of the Russian Academy 17891794 and 18061822. only give it the current value of the Firearm hand gun with a long barrel and замком2.
With the proliferation of rifled barrels appear the terms virtualnoe shotgun and a rifle. The last known since the XVIII century became the official name of the weapon class in 1856 3 but until the first third of the XX century is often called the rifle including a rifled weapon, even in official documents of the military Department. For example the question of the introduction in the Russian army with new rifle 1883 was engaged in a Special Commission for the testing of magazine rifles in 1889 became the Commission for the production of sample small-caliber rifle. All Commission documents are widely used the word gun even though it is only about the rifles and the result of the work of the Commission was the rifle OBR. 1891 4 In the brochure, 1894 notes on the 3-line rifle model 1891, the terms rifle and shotgun meet параллельно5. When in the early twentieth century, a new class of weapons machine gun in Russia, the first time was a common term
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